# How To Structure A Lotto Database To Enable Complex SQL Queries

Most lotto researchers know that large numbers of lottery combinations create a major challenge in developing the right structure of database to cope with complex queries. An added problem is in developing systems to analyse hot numbers from previous results.

For example, restricting the value of prime numbers and identifying consecutive balls might require different database structures as it may not be practical to identify prime numbers through the simplicity of SQL code.

This is because although lines will have different numbers, identical data definitions will apply. How your database is designed can either enhance or inhibit your ability to develop complex SQL queries on lottery data.

The Prime Lotto System As An Example Of Querying A Database

The popular "Prime system", which comprises 2 primes, 1 non prime odd and 3 even numbers provides an excellent case study.

In my SQL Server database, the structure of the prime system combinations is like this:

`  Prime, Prime, Non-prime odd, Even, Even, Even   Example:   2,5,9,4,8,28 `

The table holds nearly 600,000 possible combinations and is efficient for identifying and restricting each number type. For example, to set the second prime to either 7 or 29, the SQL query would look like this:

`  n2 = 7 or n2 = 29 `

But what if I wanted to ensure the first number was 6? The problem is that 6 would never be the first ball as it is not a prime number.

Making Your Lotto Queries More Flexible By Creating A New Table

One solution is to create a second table with the structure you need. In this case the example line "2,5,9,4,8,28" becomes "2,4,5,8,9,28". This means more complex queries can be defined. This approach is simply looking at the same data from a different angle.

• Restricting number groupings such as "1,3,4"
• Consecutive prime and non-prime numbers
• Spread of numbers across different decile groups

I've now got two separate data files that structure the numbers in separate ways. The new structure enables a more flexible approach with an option of using one or both tables in SQL queries. It should be possible to write queries that will search all the data for lines that meet more flexible and comprehensive parameters.

Summary

This article has introduced the concept of separate data tables to enable more flexible SQL queries on lottery data. With a little thought and original thinking complex lotto research studies can be developed and deployed.

# Advantages of Becoming an Aerospace Engineer

Now is a great time to get in aerospace engineering. NASA is beginning to phase out the space shuttles (due to be retired in 2010) and is in the process of developing the Ares rockets. These are to be the spacecraft of the future. There is a great deal of involving in the development of these rockets. There are to be two rockets per trip in the Ares program, a rocket that carries the crew, the Ares I rocket, and a rocket that carries the cargo, the Ares V rocket.

For students beginning college in the near future, this is a chance to help develop and work in the next step of space exploration. NASA is planning to establish a base on the moon by 2018 and to launch a manned mission to Mars from the moon. What an honor and privilege it would be to work on the first manned mission to another planet! Over 200 private companies currently have contracts with NASA on the Ares program. NASA is planning the first test flight for the Ares I rocket to be scheduled for 2009.

NASA is also currently developing a new lunar lander named Altair. Altair will be capable of landing four astronauts on the moon and it will provide the astronauts a temporary base on the surface moon for one week. Here at NC State, our aerospace engineering department is working the ablative shielding for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the command module of the Ares I rocket. The ablative shielding is the layer of material that burns off the spacecraft during reentry. It prevents the spacecraft from burning up on reentry. Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract for Orion.

There are many co-op and internship opportunities available for aerospace engineers. Many of the private aerospace companies offer co-ops and internships and NASA offers a few as well. Co-ops and internships are like extended job interviews. You are paid to go and work at an aerospace company and if they like you, then you are already in good standing with the company and the company knows what you are capable of. They may offer a job before you even graduate! Imagine still being in college and having the peace of mind that when you graduate, you already have a job waiting for you.

Many private aerospace companies are in the development stages of commercial space flight. Virgin Galactic, for example, is working on a spacecraft designed to take tourists into space for short period of time. Many other companies are working on similar civilian space projects as well. Aerospace engineers also develop aircraft and projectiles. The US military is always looking for a cutting edge in aircraft and missile technology.

# What are the Key Features of a Database Management System?

Every day the demand for a good database management system is increasing. The fact is that information is growing and expanding faster than ever. And this makes sense – all old records still need to be stored and saved, while new records are being added and updated daily. Even companies that five years ago had no use for a database management system are now struggling to even get a handle on the simplest information, as it relates to their customers.

All database management systems have one goal in mind – to take the information you enter into it, and store it effectively. Then, when you need to get that information back, you can access it quickly, without any problem or headaches.

Additionally, you want the feature of being able to access all of your information in one singular central location. What good is all your information going to be if it is scattered about on various disparate systems? If the accounting is on one computer, your inventory on another computer, and your sales information on a third computer, you will not be able to make the necessary snap decisions that are required in the business world.

Another feature many database management systems have is to give you the ability to make complex statistical and data analysis, so you can make the most accurate decision as quickly as possible, since time is money in business.

In addition to those features, another good feature of a database management system is its ability to stay secure. This is especially true, as it relates to hospitals. Most hospitals have very sensitive information about their patients, which could put them in legal problems if that information was accessed.

You want to make sure that you have proper security on your database management system, otherwise your information may be compromised. Nobody wants their competitors to get a get hold of their client list, and hospitals and psychiatrists, among others, have a duty to keep their information about their clients confidential.

Security can be enforced on each individual application that exists within a database management system, or it can be set up on the system itself. This will depend upon how many users are accessing the system, and how many applications are running on that system.

In conclusion, I've given you some of the basic features that make up a good database management system.

# Advantages to Android Game Development

The industry of mobile game development has introduced a very important aspect to the market – the ability to conceptualize, develop, and release video games on devices with far more success and ease than ever before. And with the Android app marketplace only requiring a one-time fee for submitting an application, the cost becomes almost negligible to put the product out for millions of customers to find. Even the submission process is drastically shorter than on most other smartphones, as the app regulation is far more lenient for the Android OS.

Another drawing point for developing games on Android devices is the programming language featured- Java. Java has long been one of the most popular programming languages ​​for video game developers, and thus makes it extremely easy for the average programmer to pick up Android development for the first time. Compared to most other mobile platforms, which usually sport modified or newly invented languages, the learning curve is decreased to nearly nothing, so a new developer can complete a game in a fraction of the time.

Another unique aspect to Android game development is the lack of standardization in the droid phone family. As the Android OS is not licensed to a single mobile phone making company, the phones themselves can vary to an extreme degree in terms of features and hardware specifications. While one device may have a fully functioning A-GPS and HDMI video compatibility, another may have a QWERTY keyboard and no GPS at all. While this is certainly appealing to some developers, as they are likely to find a phone that will meet their hardware needs precisely, it will also restrict the potential audience, as some phones will not be able to support the more complex applications.

When the game development process has finally reached the point where it can be released to the public, the developer is presented with yet another choice- which market would the game be most visible in? Unlike the iOS, there are numerous marketplaces and app stores for Android phones, each one with it's own advantages and disadvantages. From the basic Android marketplace, built to only display the apps compatible with the phone currently being used, to the Amazon app store, which offers a different free app every day, the myriad of marketing strategies can be almost daunting, which makes it all the more useful that an application can almost always be entered into multiple marketplaces without issue. However, whether it makes sense to spread attention across several different fields is another question entirely.

The Android game development process overall truly gives the most variety on the smartphone market. From start to finish, strategies can be hand-tailored to the developer's desires, making the game as close to the original concept as currently possible. While the audience may not be as large as that of iPhone users, the Android presents itself as a strong contender, purely through its accessibility. And with the largest variety of smartphones on the current market, the possibilities for development are inexhaustible, and continued releases can only add to the capabilities the platform has to offer.

If you want to have a computer of your own, then you must understand one thing about them. You see, computers are not things you must dispose of after a number of years. It is something you can build on, improve and upgrade. A computer can last you a very long time. If there is one thing you need to know about computers it is that the only thing it needs for longevity is an upgrade. You should not be afraid to upgrade your system. Doubt is something that's common with inexperienced computer users. But if you want to have a better system, one that lasts you a very long time, you have to open up to computer system upgrades. Here are a few upgrade suggestions depending on your needs.

If you start to notice a slowing of your systems, then you might need an internal hardware upgrade. A simpler approach would be to reformat your computer, but sometimes, that just will not do. When it comes to computer speed, the key components are the memory and processor. Memory is very easy to upgrade. All you have to do is buys new memory chips and put them in the empty memory slots in your computer. The processor is a bit harder to change, though. First, you have to make sure the new processor you want is compatible with your current motherboard. If it is not then you can either look for another processor that's compliant, or replace your motherboard with something that's compatible with it.

Another upgrade you might want to do is shift to a dual monitor system. A dual monitor system is great for people who need to monitor many tasks at one time. This is also great for enhancing the gaming experience. If you want to shift to a dual monitor system, just invest on two LCD or LED monitors and ensure your video card can handle the dual monitor system. You can also invest on a dual monitor stand which saves you a whole lot of space even with two monitors on your desktop.

Upgrades are necessary to lengthen your computer's life, and once you understand how you can easily upgrade your computer, you will enjoy a faster and more responsive PC without spending too much money on purchasing a new system.

Simply put, accounting is the lifeline of a business. Accounting deals with summarizing, analyzing and reporting the financial data and information about a business. An accounting software records and processes the accounting transactions of a business within its functional modules. Financial statements consisting of the balance sheet, profit and loss account, and statement of changes in financial position can be easily prepared with an accounting software.

An accounting software is all about the various functional modules that it has. Some of them are- General ledger which takes care of the company's financial dealings; Accounts Payable where the company enters its bills and pays the money it owes; Accounts Receivable where money received is entered.

The different categories or types of accounting software are as follows:

a) Small business / personal accounting software which are mainly meant for home users. They are simple and inexpensive with simple functioning such as management of budgets.

b) Low end accounting software are for small business markets that are capable of serving a single national market. Such software are characterized by 'single entry' products.

c) Mid market accounting software are for companies with large businesses. These software are capable of serving the needs of multiple national accountancy standards and facilitate accounting in multiple currencies.

d) High end accounting software are complex and expensive business accounting software that are also known as Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP software.

However, you have to keep certain things in mind before buying an accounting software, like the prices of the software, its different features, its after-sales support and alike. Most of the accounting software include all the important accounting modules. The more specialized features a software has, the more expensive it becomes. Your software features must be compatible with your business. Also, the after-sales support is important like FAQ package, local service center and others.

There are a lot of top accounting software available in every category. So, it is not easy to select the best ones. Below are top five accounting software in every category.

A. Small business / personal accounting software:

1.ePeachtree (Best Software)

2.MYOB Plus for Windows (MYOB Software)

3.Peachtree Complete Accounting (Best Software)

4.QuickBooks Online (Intuit)

B. Low-End Accounting Software:

2.MAS 90 & MAS 200 (Best Software)

3.QuickBooks Pro 2003 (Intuit)

4.ACCPAC Pro Series (ACCPAC International)

5.Vision Point 2000 (Best Software)

C. Middle-Market Accounting Software:

1.ACCPAC Advantage Series Corporate Edition (Best Software)

2.Great Plains (Microsoft) MAS 90 & MAS 200 (Best Software)

3.Navision (Microsoft)

4.SouthWare Excellence Series (SouthWare)

5.SYSPRO (SysproUSA)

D. High-end accounting ERP Market:

1.Axapta (Microsoft Software)

3.MAS 500 (Best Software)

4.Solomon (Microsoft)

5.ACCPAC Advantage Series Enterprise Edition (Best Software)

In compiling the above list, a variety of factors such as feedbacks from customers, scalability of the software, and after-sales support are used. Also, the different attributes for different categories have been considered like for ERP software, attributes such as manufacturing solution, supply chain solution and database solution. The above compilation may not be all inclusive and some people might choose to differ with it but it is almost near to perfect list.

# Psychology – A Science As Well As an Art

Psychology is commonly defined as 'scientific' study of human behavior and cognitive processes. Broadly speaking the discussion focuses on the different branches of psychology, and if they are indeed scientific. However, it is integral in this to debate to understand exactly the major features of a science, in order to judge if psychology is in fact one. There must be a definable subject matter – this changed from conscious human thought to human and non-human behavior, then to cognitive processes within psychology's first eighty years as a separate discipline. Also, a theory construction is important. This represents an attempt to explain observed phenomena, such as Watson's attempt to account for human and non-human behavior in terms of classical conditioning, and Skinner's subsequent attempt to do the same with operant conditioning. Any science must have hypotheses, and indeed test them. This involves making specific predictions about behavior under certain specified conditions.

Science is meant to be objective and unbiased. It should be free of values ​​and discover the truths about what it is studying. Positivism is the view that science is objective and a study of what is real. For example, schizophrenia, when diagnosed as being caused due to excess dopamine, is being studied in a scientific manner. The explanation does not take into account any cultural customs or individual differences that might lead to 'schizophrenic' behavior. However, even in scientific research like this the person is doing the diagnosing has his or her own views, and may misinterpret behavior because of his or her own subjective biases. For example, if someone talks about hearing voices, they may be referring to a spiritual experience, but a medical practitioner might well diagnose schizophrenia. So objective, value-free study is not easy, because the scientist has views and biases, and cultural or other issues are perhaps important factors. Some say that a truly objective study is not possible, and that a scientific approach to the study of people is not desirable.

Definitions of psychology have changed during its lifetime, largely reflecting the influence and contributions of its major theoretical approaches or orientations. Kline in 1998 argued that the different approaches within the field of psychology should be seen as self-contained disciplines, as well as different facets of the same discipline. He argued that a field of study can only be legitimately considered a science if a majority of its workers subscribe to a common, global perspective or 'paradigm'. According to Kuhn, a philosopher of science, this means that psychology is 'pre-paradigmatic' – it lacks a paradigm, without which it is still in a state of 'pre-science'. Whether psychology has, or ever had, paradigm is hotly debated. Others believe that psychology has already undergone two revolutions, and is now in a stage of normal science, with cognitive psychology the current paradigm. A third view, which represents a blend of the first two, is that psychology currently, and simultaneously, has a number of paradigms.

With regards to which perspectives are regarded as 'scientific', and which are not, the majority lies with 'scientific'. There are four perspectives that clearly lie under 'scientific', the behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-developmental and the physiological. The psychodynamic and humanistic perspectives are argued to be idiographic, in that they look at individual differences, instead of universal laws. The social approach can be seen as an intermediate, as, although it appreciates that there is a strong element of science involved in psychology, for example the treatment of some mental disorders, it focuses on social and environmental factors. For example, the biological perspective is said to be scientific fundamentally because it looks at the biological functioning of every human being and searches for reasons and solutions which can be applied nomothetically. It focuses on biological behavior, which can be empirically tested, and findings generalized. It emphasizes on the importance of the nervous system and the importance of genetics on behavior. These aims are clearly scientific, and the methods used are scientific – empirically measured, hypothesized and nomothetic.

One example of this is the medical approach to mental illness. The biological approach suggests that schizophrenia could be down to several factors, such as genetics or a chemical imbalance. The psychodynamic approach however, as been criticized as being 'unscientific'. Many of Freud's theories are not able to be tested, and many of his studies, because empirical measures can not be applied, remain firmly in theory and can not be tested, they are difficult to operate – it is impossible to test if the unconscious exists if we are by nature meant to be unaware of it. One could however argue that we can not prove that it does not exist either. The majority of the approaches suggests that psychology is in fact a science, but within the field of psychology, in order for it to be classified as a science, each of its perspective should be seen as scientific. The humanistic approach, a so-called 'third-force' between behaviorism and the psychodynamic approaches, is idiographic, since it studies the individual, and holistic, as it looks at the whole person. A scientific approach for general laws will not capture this active interacting individual, and so the humanistic approach uses methods that are not scientific.

The issue of psychology as a science is cloudy. On one hand, psychology is a science. The subject matter is behavior, including mental aspects of behavior such as memory, and the subject matter is divided up for study. Variables are measured, and carefully controlled to a point. Laboratories are often used in an effort to improve controls – controls are as thorough as possible, so that general laws about behavior can be built.

On the other hand, psychology can be viewed not as a science, as it does not aim at scientific principles to measure the whole world. In many areas of psychology there is no attempt to generalize from some human behavior to all human behavior. The social representation theory focuses on interactions, and the humanistic theory focuses on self-actualization and the individual's experiences and actions. Where there is focus on interactions between people, and on the individual's experiences, scientific methods are not useful. Non-scientific methods include case-studies and unstructured interviews. If a method in not scientific, it aims for good validity, in-depth material about someone or a small group, qualitative data and a richness of data that is not found by isolating variables, as in many psychological studies.

Psychology as a separate field of study grew out of several other disciplines, both scientific (such as physiology) and non-scientific (in particular philosophy). For much of its life as an independent discipline, and through what some call revolutions and paradigm shifts, it has taken the natural sciences as its model. Ultimately, whatever a particular science may claim to have discovered about the phenomena it studies, scientific activity remains just one aspect of human behavior. I feel that psychology should be viewed as a science, even if it does not concur with traditional scientific specifications.

To run a business properly you need the right technical equipment. Large corporations, small businesses, home based businesses and even people who work outside, for example farmers, all need technical equipment. Whether it is used all the time in the office or if you use it occasionally to keep track of your financial records and business data, you need the right equipment. Almost all businesses use computers, although the extent of how much you use them depends on the industry you are in, but having IT Support Melbourne on hand can give you computer support when necessary.

Computers

Nowadays nearly all businesses have computers. Some will use them all the time in the office, using various tools like word processing, spreadsheets, databases and presentation software, and they will also make use of the Internet and email. Depending on the industry your business is in you may even use computers to create your product, for example with drafting and engineering there are specific programs they use to complete their necessary tasks. Even someone who works out in the field, like foresters and farmers use computers to do things like store information and help them with their bookkeeping. Most companies will have an IT support service that they deal with in case of any computer issues.

Fax and phones

A business can not operate without a phone or fax machine. Your phone system may be a large network connected with many extensions, with a central switchboard at your reception, or you could be working from home with a single business line. If you work out in the field or on site you could also need a mobile for all your communication, and many managers and employees have business mobiles for when they are out of the office. A fax machine is just as important for receiving hard copies of documents.

Printer and scanner

Your business will also need a printer, and depending on the size of your business it may be a large central printer that many computers are directed to, or it could be a compact printer that is small enough to sit on your desk at home. Many printers are scanners as well, or you may need a separate scanner. A scanner is used to create a digital copy on your computer of hard copies of documents or photographs. Your business may need to scan documents and photos all the time, depending on your line of work. Not all businesses need a scanner, but it is a handy piece of equipment.

Photocopier

Many printers can photocopy documents, and if you have a home based business it is likely that you would purchase a printer that has this option, as well as being able to scan documents. In a large office a single use photocopier is necessary, particularly if you do multiple copies or you need to copy documents with many pages. A large photocopier will collate pages, photocopy on both sides of the paper and even staple them together. Camera Your business might need a camera, depending on what line of work you are in. A digital camera is best as you can upload photos straight away on to your computer.

# The Beatrix Potter Syndrome

When trying to understand something new, we automatically look for parallels in our previous experience: we seek examples from the familiar in order to better understand the unfamiliar. Often, this can be helpful, as when we learn a new language and we draw on our knowledge of another language with a common root.

Unfortunately, this strategy can also take us down a path that leads not to greater understanding, but to the confusion of fact with conditioned thought and to a form of distorted vision.

This can readily be observed in the interpretation of animal behaviour by reference to human behaviour, which is one form of what we call anthropomorphism. Myths and fables and children's tales are so suffused with the granting of human values ​​and character traits to animals that it is hard to think of a creature that has not, in our imaginations, been stereotyped and imprinted with characteristics ascribed to it by someone with a particular point to make, or axe to grind. Thus the fox is 'wily and cunning'; the dog is 'faithful and obedient'; the elephant is a 'gentle giant' and the snake is 'sneaky and deceitful'. Aesop probably started the trend, but I prefer to call it the 'Beatrix Potter Syndrome', in recognition of her influence on the developing minds of 20th-century children, of whom I was one.

Beatrix Potter was an accomplished illustrator and observer of nature, who, had she been born a century later, may well have had a distinguished career in science. Sadly, she is now only remembered for her children's books depicting animals in human clothing who walk on their hind legs. From her stories, a direct line can be drawn to the emotionally charged portrayals of animals in many Disney films, while the brutal reality of the lives of wild animals is hidden beneath a veil of sugary sentimentality.

Potter's assignation of human attributes and behaviour to animals is only one form of anthropomorphism. There are at least two other ways in which we routinely corrupt our understanding of the non-human world by our choice of language: the use of words to name or describe an animal and the description of animal behaviour in human terms.

We can draw examples from the world of bees to illustrate both of these phenomena.

When we label the egg-laying mother of the colony as 'queen' bee, we impose on her by implication all the meaning with which that English word is loaded. Thus we may expect to find her as a monarch in charge of the colony, issuing orders and, perhaps, punishments for infringements of 'colony law'. The term 'queen bee' has passed back into the English language as a description of a woman with a controlling and manipulate nature, who likes to have people around her to serve her needs and give her attention. This reinforces the popular but inappropriate picture of a real 'queen' bee, which should really be more accurately thought of as the egg-laying servant of the colony and certainly not its ruler. While the queen bee does indeed have a retinue of attendants to feed and groom her, it is they who lead her around and prepare places for her to lay. When she begins to show any signs of a decline in her ability to provide eggs, she will be superseded, ignored and left to starve.

Likewise the male bee, or drone, which has inherited the popular meaning of its name as a parasitic loafer, or one who lives off the labours of others. While the male bees do no obvious and visible work compared to their sometimes hyper-active sisters, we know remarkably little about their day-to-day activities due to the comparatively small amount of research that has been conducted on them. I suggest it is highly improbable that a colony would deliberately encumber itself with a 'useless' 10-15% of its population at a time when gathering food is its primary concern. Simply because we have so far failed to study them with due care does not entitle us to label them as 'surplus to requirements', which is how they are regarded by most conventional beekeepers. In fact, research by Juergen Tautz at Wurtzburg University has shown that drones may indeed have hitherto unsuspected duties within the hive and may well have functions in the outside world that have so far eluded detection. As long ago as 1852, Moses Quinby (Mysteries of Beekeeping Explained) suggested that drones would likely have functions beyond mating with a queen, perhaps including helping to keep the brood warm. ROBManley noted that his best honey-producing hives generally had "a large number of drones" (Honey Farming, 1947).

When we come to bee behaviour, so much of it is alien to us that we struggle to make sense of it, so it is not surprising that we resort to attempts to explain aspects of their world in human terms. We talk freely of bees foraging for food, scouting for a nest site, communicating by means of the 'waggle dance', defending their home, mating and carrying out their dead because these are all activities that we can easily relate to and make practical sense in terms of day-to-day survival in a colony.

What is perhaps more surprising – and infinitely less helpful – is when people concoct mystical 'explanations' derived entirely from their imaginations and pass them on as if they had some scientific validity or foundation in fact.

Myths and legends, populated by gods and heroes, are poetic allegories through which we have conveyed information – both oral and written – from generation to generation and thus gained some understanding of our cultural history. Many myths are anthropomorphic in their personification of natural phenomena, but as long as we understand their origins and true nature, we can learn from them without confusing their content with objective reality.

However, as our scientific understanding of the natural world grew rapidly throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, there was a parallel growth of popular interest in such things as clairvoyance, telekinesis, telepathy, reincarnation, ghosts, out-of-body experiences and suchlike para -psychological phenomena that appear not to be subject to the known laws of physics, chemistry or biology. Despite the lack of verifiable evidence for such phenomena, they appear to occupy a nether region that stubbornly persists in popular culture.

In the context of this article, the consideration of whether or not such phenomena really exist is less relevant than the fact that they have, since Victorian times at least, been routinely presented as if they were genuine by people with a considerably greater talent for showmanship than for scientific rigour. Demonstrations of 'manifestations from the spirit world' were fashionable in late nineteenth century society, while Ouija boards and 'table-tipping' have floated in and out of fashion almost to the present day, despite the efforts of rationalists such as James Randi and Derren Brown to expose the trickery behind them. Variations on the 'clairvoyance' theme have been around at least since the days of the Delphic Oracle – probably the first example of a tourist industry built around a mystical cult – and show no signs of losing popularity, despite various myth-busting public exposures of fraud and trickery.

Rudolf Steiner, in his lectures on bees, delivered in November and December of 1923 at the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switzerland, sought to interpret the world of bees by means of 'Anthroposophy', a Christianized, version of the mystical 19th century eastern-derived 'religious philosophy' of Theosophy, whose best-known proponent, Helena Blavatsky, was also a performing clairvoyant. Both Steiner and Blavatsky claimed to derive their occult knowledge from outside the material world, by a process that would nowadays be called 'channeling'.

Steiner believed that mankind had existed on Earth – although not necessarily in material form – since its creation, and that bees (as well as other animals) were created for our benefit. This chronological reversal of the truth as revealed by fossil evidence – bees having certainly been around for more than 100 million years before Homo sapiens – sets the scene for further dubious assertions, such as when he talks of embryonic queens "giving off light" that somehow causes a colony to swarm from "fear that 'it no longer possesses the bee poison".

Anyone unfamiliar with Steiner's idiosyncratic cosmology and his other writings about the supposed history of the Earth may be surprised by passages such as:

"Our earth was once in a condition of which one could say that it was surrounded by clouds that had plant-life within them; from the periphery, other clouds approached and fertilised them; these clouds had an animal nature. From cosmic spaces came the animal nature; from the earth the essence of plant-being rose upwards. " (Lecture VIII)

Back in the world of bees, Steiner makes much of the 21-day gestation period of a worker bee as being equivalent to "a single rotation of the sun on its axis" (Lecture II), apparently unaware that the equatorial regions of the sun perform a single rotation in 25.6 days, while polar regions rotate once in about 36 days (NASA).

He goes on to say that 'the drone is thus an earthly being' (because its completion takes longer than the sun's rotation – which in fact, as we now know, it does not).

He further elaborates on this thesis:

"The drones are the males; they can fertilize; this power of fertilization comes from the earth; the drones acquire it in the few days during which they continue their growth within the earth-evolution and before they reach maturity. So we can now say : in the bees it is clearly to be seen that fertilization (male fecundation) comes from the earthly forces, and the female capacity to develop the egg comes from the forces of the Sun. So you see, you can easily imagine how significant is the length of time during which a creature develops. This is very important for, naturally, something happens within a definite time which could not occur in either a shorter or a longer time, for then quite other things would happen. "

As happens numerous times in the Lectures, Steiner makes a statement that is demonstrably erroneous, and then goes on to elaborate a sequence of specious arguments from it, which, being derived from false premises, must inevitably lead to false conclusions.

It would be tedious to cite every instance where Steiner is obfuscatory, unnecessarily mystical or just plain wrong. Suffice to say that, while not being totally devoid of interest, his Lectures are about as useful a source of insights into bees as a medieval book of medicinal herbs would be for conducting modern surgery. Indeed, Steiner even betrays his lack of basic understanding of the functions of the human body (Lecture VII) in saying that:

"… It is represented as though the heart were a kind of pump, and that this pumping of the heart sends the blood all over the body. This is nonsense, because it is in reality the blood which is brought into motion by the ego-organization, and moves throughout the body. "

However, Steiner does make some non-mystical statements that must be considered, as they at least fall into alignment with observable reality. He warns against pushing bees for over-production, drawing a parallel with the dairy industry (Lecture V); he emphasizes that "… the bee-colony is a totality. It must be seen as a totality." (Lecture V); The one much-vaunted but often mis-quoted, 'prediction' made by Steiner, usually misrepresented as a 'prophesy' of the general demise of bees, amounts to a rather mild criticism of the then relatively new practice of artificial insemination: ". ..we must see how things will be in fifty to eighty years time … ".

Right at the end of the final Lecture, we find clear evidence that Steiner's view of nature is actually highly anthropocentric:

'Thus we can say: When we observe things in the right way, we see how the processes of Nature are actually images and symbols of what happens in human life. These men of olden times watched the birds on the juniper trees with the same love with which we look at the little cakes and gifts on the Christmas tree. "… I have therefore spoken of the juniper tree which can truly be regarded as a kind of Christmas tree, and which is the same for the birds as the blossoms for the bees, the wood for the ants, and for the wood- bees and insects in general. "

And so Steiner's personal mysticism, as well as his sentimentality, turns out to have a large component of anthropomorphism lurking within it.

Having reached this point in our analysis, we have to consider what is left to us: what would be a legitimate methodology for the study of bees, that would be free from the elephant traps of anthropocentrism, anthropomorphism, sentimentality and mysticism, yet can encompass the sense experienced by many who come into contact with bees that there is 'something else' present, beyond the purely material?

A rationalist would say, 'observe without interpretation: see what is there and describe it as accurately as possible, but without overlaying it with meaning. Be true to observable reality '.

And yet, many people report some kind of transcendental experience in the presence of bees en masse, so are their reports to be written off as mere whimsy?

Speaking from my own experience, I can say that while working with bees and maintaining a calm, unhurried demeanour, I have had moments of inner peace akin to that I have also experienced while meditating or engaging in certain martial arts practices that aim to 'still the mind '. Having one's unprotected hands in a hive containing 50,000 fully-armed bees has a way of focusing the mind very much in the moment, while any deviation from the 'now' is likely to be punished more rapidly and more severely than by a Zen master's staff .

Being present 'in the moment' is a rarer – and thus more precious – experience for the 21st-century Twitter-dweller than for our ancestors. For the opportunity to experience that sense of timelessness in the company of a wild creature so many millennia our senior is a privilege that beekeepers should celebrate and cherish.

Mysticism has had its day. We are grown-ups now: we have seen the atom bomb and the double helix and we need to come to terms with objective reality in all its wonderful forms without ascribing all phenomena just beyond our understanding to the work of gods, aliens, faeries or gnomes. We can appreciate nature without projecting our aspirations or values ​​onto it. We can observe without always needing to know the 'hidden meaning' of what we see hear, smell and taste. We can be elevated by what is around us and enjoy all the sensations available in this remarkable, natural world. We can even compose poems and songs, myths and fables to entertain us and our children, but we no longer need to sit at the feet of all-too-mortal men who exert power over the ignorant by interposing themselves between us and authentic experience of the mysteries of life.

# What Is Android? How Android Came Into Existence

Android is a Linux based mobile device operating system developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google. Android is mainly used in Smartphone and tablet computers. Android is open source ie its features can be extended to incorporate new technologies as they emerge.

Android, Inc. was founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sear and Chris White in Palo Alto, California. On August 17, 2005 Google acquired Android Inc. making it a subsidiary of Google Inc.

On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance publicly announced their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on Linux kernel version 2.6.

Android provides a broad spectrum of applications and services to its user. Users can fully customize their mobile phones to their interests. The first Mobile phone that has used Android was the HTC Dream, release on 22 October 2008.

Here are some features of Android Operating System .

1. Layout: The layout is mainly based on VGA, 2D graphics library and 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0.
2. Storage: For data storage SQLite is used .
3. Connectivity: Android supports GSM / EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, WI-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX connectivity technologies.
4. Multi Lingual Support: It supports multiple languages .
5. Messaging: Android supports SMS and MMS including threaded text messaging and Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM).
6. Web Browser: It is mainly based on the open-source WebKit layout engine and Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine.
7. Java Support: Most of the applications are written in Java but they run on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android.
8. Media Support: Android supports WebM, H.263 , H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC, HE-AAC, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP and WebP media formats.
9. Hardware Support: It can support wide variety of hardwares including video / still cameras, touchscreens, GPS, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, dedicated gaming controls, proximity and pressure sensors, thermometers, accelerated 2D bit blits and accelerated 3D graphics.
11. Multi-touch: It supports multi touch natively, but previously it was disabled at the kernel level. An update was released by Google which enables multi-touch natively.
12. External Support: Now the majority of Android devices support microSD slot and can read microSD card formatted with FAT32, Ext3fs or Ext4fs file system.

There are millions of applications available for Android which can be downloaded from Google Play, formerly Android Market. The latest version that is available to phones is Android 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich.