Monthly Archives: February 2017

Genetic Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria presents one of the most dramatic examples of how the relationship between genotype and phenotype can depend on environmental variables. Phenylketonuria was very first recognized as an inherited cause of mental retardation in 1934, and systematic attempts to deal with the situation were initiated within the 1950s.

The term "phenylketonuria" denotes increased amounts of urinary phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate, which occur when circulating phenylalanine amounts, usually in between 0.06 and mmol / L, rise above one.a couple of mmol / L. Therefore, the primary defect in phenylketonuria is hyperphenylalaninemia, which by itself has a number of distinct genetic causes. The pathophysiology of phenylketonuria illustrates a number of essential principles in human genetics.

Hyperphenylalaninemia by itself is caused by substrate accumulation, which happens when a regular intermediary metabolite fails to become eliminated correctly and its concentrations turn out to be increased to levels that are toxic. As described later on, one of the most common trigger of hyperphenylalaninemia is deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.

People with mutations in phenylalanine hydroxylase generally do not endure from your absence of tyrosine simply because this amino acid could be supplied to the body by mechanisms which are independent of phenylalanine hydroxylase. In other types of phenylketonuria, nevertheless, extra disease manifestations happen like a result of end-product deficiency, which occurs when the downstream product of the specific enzyme is required for a key physiologic procedure.

A discussion of phenylketonuria also helps to illustrate the rationale for, and application of, population-based screening applications for genetic disease. More than 10 million newborn infants per year are tested for phenylketonuria, and also the focus today in treatment has shifted in several respects. Very first, "successful" remedy of phenylketonuria by dietary restriction of phenylalanine is, in basic, accompanied by subtle neuropsychologic defects that happen to be acknowledged only in the last decade.

Therefore, existing investigations concentrate on alternative treatment methods such as somatic gene therapy as nicely as on the social and psychologic elements that affect compliance with dietary management. Second, a generation of females handled for phenylketonuria are now bearing kids, and the phenomenon of maternal phenylketonuria has been recognized by which in utero exposure to maternal hyperphenylalaninemia outcomes in congenital abnormalities regardless of fetal genotype.

The quantity of pregnancies at danger has risen in proportion towards the profitable treatment of phenylketonuria and represents a challenge to public wellness officials, physicians, and geneticists in the future. The incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia varies among various populations. In African Americans, it is about 1: 50,000; in Yemenite Jews, about 1: 5000; and in most Northern European populations, about 1: 10,000.

Postnatal growth retardation, moderate to severe mental retardation, recurrent seizures, hypopigmentation, and eczematous skin rashes constitute the main phenotypic features of untreated phenylketonuria. However, using the advent of widespread newborn screening applications for hyperphenylalaninemia, the major phenotypic manifestations of phenylketonuria these days occur when remedy is partial or when it's terminated prematurely throughout late childhood or adolescence.

In these cases, there's generally a slight but significant decline in IQ, an array of particular overall performance and perceptual defects, and an increased frequency of learning and behavioral problems. New child screening for phenylketonuria is carried out on the little amount of dried blood obtained at 24-72 hours of age.

From your initial screen, there is about a 1% incidence of positive or indeterminate test outcomes, and aa lot more quantitative measurement of plasma phenylalanine is then performed prior to a couple of weeks of age. In neonates who undergo a 2nd round of testing, the diagnosis of phenylketonuria is ultimately confirmed in about 1%, providing an estimated phenylketonuria prevalence of one: 10,000, even though there is great geographic and ethnic variation (see prior discussion).

The false-negative rate of phenylketonuria newborn screening applications is around one: 70; phenylketonuria in these unfortunate people is generally not detected until developmental delay and seizures throughout infancy or early childhood prompt a systematic evaluation for an inborn error of metabolism.

Infants in whom a diagnosis of phenylketonuria is confirmed are generally placed on a dietary regimen by which a semisynthetic formula low in phenylalanine could be combined with regular breast feeding. This regimen is adjusted empirically to maintain a plasma phenylalanine concentration at or beneath 1 mmol / L, which can be nevertheless several times greater than regular but similar to levels observed in so-called benign hyperphenylalaninemia, a biochemical diagnosis which can be not associated with phenylketonuria and has no clinical consequences.

Phenylalanine is definitely an essential amino acid, and even people with phenylketonuria should consume little amounts to prevent protein starvation plus a catabolic state. Most kids need 25-50 mg / kg / d of phenylalanine, and these needs are met by combining organic foods with commercial products created for phenylketonuria treatment.

When nutritional treatment applications were very first implemented, it was hoped that the risk of neurologic damage from your hyperphenylalaninemia of phenylketonuria would have a restricted window and that treatment could be stopped after childhood. However, it now seems that even mild hyperphenylalaninemia in adults (> one.a couple of mmol / L) is associated with neuropsychologic and cognitive deficits; therefore, nutritional remedy of phenylketonuria should most likely be continued indefinitely.

As an increasing quantity of handled females with phenylketonuria reach childbearing age, a new problem-fetal hyperphenylalaninemia by way of intrauterine exposure-has turn out to be apparent. New child infants in this kind of cases exhibit microcephaly and growth retardation of prenatal onset, congenital heart disease, and extreme developmental delay irrespective from the fetal genotype.

Rigorous control of maternal phenylalanine concentrations from before conception until birth reduces the incidence of fetal abnormalities in maternal phenylketonuria, however the level of plasma phenylalanine that is "safe" for a developing fetus is 0.12-0.36 mmol / L-significantly lower than what is regarded acceptable for phenylketonuria-affected children or adults on phenylalanine-restricted diets.

The regular metabolic fate of free of charge phenylalanine is incorporation into protein or hydroxylation by phenylalanine hydroxylase to type tyrosine. Because tyrosine, but not phenylalanine, can be metabolized to create fumarate and acetoacetate, hydroxylation of phenylalanine can be viewed both like a signifies of producing tyrosine a nonessential amino acid and as a mechanism for offering energy by way of gluconeogenesis during states of protein starvation.

In individuals with mutations in phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine becomes an important amino acid. Nevertheless, the clinical manifestations from the disease are caused not by absence of tyrosine (most people get enough tyrosine within the diet in any situation) but by accumulation of phenylalanine.

Transamination of phenylalanine to form phenylpyruvate usually does not happen unless circulating concentrations exceed one.a couple of mmol / L, however the pathogenesis of CNS abnormalities in phenylketonuria is related more to phenylalanine by itself than to its metabolites.

In addition to a direct effect of elevated phenylalanine levels on power production, protein synthesis, and neurotransmitter homeostasis within the developing brain, phenylalanine can also inhibit the transport of neutral amino acids across the blood-brain barrier, leading to a selective amino acid deficiency in the cerebrospinal fluid.

Therefore, the neurologic manifestations of phenylketonuria are felt to become due to a basic effect of substrate accumulation on cerebral metabolism. The pathophysiology of the eczema seen in untreated or partially treated phenylketonuria is not nicely understood, but eczema is really a common function of other inborn errors of metabolism by which plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids are elevated.

Hypopigmentation in phenylketonuria is most likely caused by an inhibitory effect of excess phenylalanine about the production of dopaquinone in melanocytes, which can be the rate-limiting step in melanin synthesis. Approximately 90% of infants with persistent hyperphenylalaninemia detected by new child screening have standard phenylketonuria brought on by a defect in phenylalanine hydroxylase (see later on discussion).

From the remainder, most have benign hyperphenylalaninemia, by which circulating levels of phenylalanine are in between 0.1 mmol / L and one mmol / L. Nevertheless, around 1% of infants with persistent hyperphenylalaninemia have defects in the metabolic process of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a stoichiometric cofactor for the hydroxylation reaction.

Unfortunately, BH4 is required not just for phenylalanine hydroxylase but also for tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase. The items of these latter two enzymes are catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters; thus, people with defects in BH4 metabolism endure not just from phenylketonuria (substrate accumulation) but additionally from absence of essential neurotransmitters (end-product deficiency).

Impacted individuals develop a severe neurologic disorder in early childhood manifested by hypotonia, inactivity, and developmental regression and are handled not only with nutritional restriction of phenylalanine but also with nutritional supplementation with BH4, dopa, and 5-hydroxytryptophan.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mainframe Computing

Mainframe computers perform complex and critical computing in large corporations and governments across the world. Mainframe machines are fast, smart, and capable of the advanced computing necessary to our generation of corporate IT infrastructure and business goals.

The emergence of newer computing technology has not killed demand for mainframes, as they offer unique benefits that make them one of the most reliable business computing solutions.

Let us look at the features that make mainframes a preferred computing platform, and also a few of their drawbacks.

Advantages of mainframe computing

High-level computing: One of the main characteristics of mainframe computers is their ability to process data and run applications at high speeds. Business computing requires high-speed input / output (I / O), more than raw computing speed. Mainframes effectively deliver it. Further, as business computing also demands wide bandwidth connections, mainframe design balances I / O performance and bandwidth.

Increased processing power: Mainframe computers are supported by large numbers of high-power processors. Moreover, unlike other computers, mainframes delegate I / O to hundreds of processors, thus confining the main processor to application processing only. This feature is unique to mainframes and makes them superior in processing.

Virtualization: A mainframe system can be divided into logical partitions (LPARs, also known as virtual machines). Each LPAR can run a server. Thus a single mainframe machine can do the work of a "server farm" that employs scores of servers built on some other platform. As all these virtual machines run on a single processor in a single box, mainframes effectively eliminate the need for a lot of other hardware.

Reliability, availability, and serviceability (RAS): The RAS characteristics of a computer have often been some of the most important factors in data processing. Mainframe computers exhibit effective RAS characteristics in both hardware and software.

Mainframe systems are reliable because they can detect, report, and self-recover from system problems. Furthermore, they can recover without disturbing the entire working system, thus keeping most applications available.

The serviceability of mainframes means they make it relatively easy to detect and diagnose problems, making it easy to fix problems in a short time and with little downtime.

• Security: As mainframes are designed specifically for large organizations where the confidentiality of data is critical, mainframe computers have extensive capabilities for securely storing and protecting data. They provide secure systems for large numbers of applications all accessing confidential data. Mainframe security often integrates multiple security and monitoring services: user authentication, auditing, access control, and firewalls.

• High-end scalability: The scalability of a computing platform is its ability to perform even as processors, memory, and storage are added. Mainframe computers are known for their scalability in both hardware and software. They easily run multiple tasks of varying complexity.

• Continuing compatibility: Continuing compatibility is one of the popular characteristics of mainframe computers. They support applications of varying ages. Mainframe computers have been upgraded many times, and continue to work with many combinations of old, new, and emerging software.

• Long lasting performance: Mainframe computers are known for their long-lasting performance. Once installed, mainframe systems work for years and years without any major issues or downtime.

Disadvantages of mainframe computing
One of the prominent drawbacks of mainframes is their cost. Hardware and software for mainframes are clearly expensive. However, compared to the cost of other routes to security, IT management, virtualization, etc., the cost of mainframes is significantly less.

Secondly, mainframe hardware occupies more space than other computers. That large space might be a constraint for small establishments. But that problem is not so severe as it once was. Compared to earlier machines, today's mainframes are small.

Finally, one needs high-end skills to work with mainframe computers. You can not operate a mainframe environment without specific training. However, as one skilled administrator can serve a large group of mainframe users, using mainframes significantly reduces people-costs and thus offers a significant staffing advantage.

Critique of Lynne McTaggart’s Book: “THE FIELD”

An investigative reporter and admittedly without scientific expertise, the author explores scarcely charted territories comprising The Field. Alternately preferring her study as the Zero Point Field, Lynne explores advanced communications theory, partially confirmed in private interviews, papers, journals, and books emanating from the foremost philosophers, psychologists, inventors, and physicists investigating atom propensity, wave mechanics, light particularity, paranormal communication, and parapsychology as it relates to telepathy and psychokinetics and as the whole relates to quantum mechanics.

To furnish background for this 250 page investigative adventure, McTaggart brings theory to date with over 350 bibliographic references. In prologue, she suggests: the basis of quantum physics must arise 'in the Zero Point Field – posited as the most fundamental nature of matter – as the very underpinning of our universe, as packets of quantum energy constantly exchanging information in an inexhaustible energy sea . '

'Exchanging information' is important to the author's narrative, advancing the possibility of universal communication from particle waves intelligence, omnisciently resident in a cavernous Zero Point Field, not easily located but everywhere existent. Ascribing matter to its most fundamental level, as indistinct, indescribable, indivisible, and indestructible energy particles, she describes an individual electron with power to influence another quantum particle, over any distance, without any show of energy or force, and commensurate with a complex and independent relationship web, forever indivisible. In other words, she perceives life existence in a universal quantum field's basic substructure, with intelligent design, and inhering indestructibility according to the law of physics-subject to and contributing to the intelligence field.

We might suggest: science deserves much credit for its physics industry; yet, scientific expertise and investigative reporters often wear blinder-equipped bridles, where viewpoint opens on a narrow track, on a familiar ground so often traveled, being safely driven in the narrow-abstract, and sometimes oblivious to definite and more logical rationalizations. Thus, immersed in extractions from the speculative sea inundating scientific journals, reports, and bibliographic resources reeking of half-truth, untruth, and a smattering of relative truth, distinguished theorists and investigative reporters attempt to establish philosophy and science-reality believability by degrees.

Much is made of Zero Point Field (ZPF) influence toward energy creation and dissemination, but in no instance have physicists and related sciences ventured much beyond electro-energy's very frontier. Still, the debate rages on concerning qualities of photons, heat, dark energy, particles, waves, and light energy. Are they separate, or, are they all the same? In the submicroscopic world, measured in nanometers and nanoseconds, some experiments can not distinguish between wave or particle, depending on the approach. Add to this, intelligence theory advanced for 'The Field' and quantum science must somehow incorporate wave communications into quantum mechanics and relativity workability-and despite atom orbital momentum forces and stability instigations remaining as mysterious as always.

Lynne goes to great lengths in quoting various experimental sources working with the qualities of light, even to plant and animal light intake and emission to maintain equilibrium, even to body parts restitution: "A cancerous compound must cause cancer because it permanently blocks this light and scrambles it, so photo-repair can not work anymore. " She relates how cell function as well as mental perception occurs at a much more fundamental level of matter: 'in the netherworld of quantum particles, not seeing objects per se, but only their quantum information and out of that constructed our image of the world, a matter of tuning into the Zero Point Field. '

A full energy field curriculum illuminates under the author's pen, from telepathy to teleology. We can sum her effort as a visual theory of 'substructure underpinning the universe and essentially a recording medium of everything, providing means for everything to communicate with everything else.'

Though this book is grammatically slothful, the book will awaken minds to possibility, to investigate work fields not usually publicized, and to greatly expand awareness to the forces shaping human cognizance. Truly, we are an intelligence living in historical recall, in reality; here, we can travel ahead of the curve and ponder the imponderable.

Further works concerned with the road to advanced understanding, pondering the imponderable, in the field of metaphysics and wrestling with a language posited as imponderable in its secret mode, are available and promise to surprise at every turn. Our wish is to induce curiosity, introduce new ideas, and impugn those ideas and positions not consistent with syllogistic reasoning. A wondrous world of knowledge awaits the inquisitive.

Aerospace KPI is the Key to Industry Success

By using relevant aerospace KPI in performance evaluation, companies that belong to the aerospace industry will be able to assess employee performance and the value of their output efficiently.

The term "aerospace" typically refers to the atmosphere that surrounds the Earth as well as the surrounding space. Consequently, all companies whose end products are tools, technologies, or vehicles that allow movement through air and space are said to belong to the aerospace industry. This industry is characterized as a diverse field that involves not only commercial and industrial applications, but military applications as well. Industry participants may be involved in researches, operations, manufacture, and maintenance of aerospace vehicles.

The aerospace industry is undoubtedly one of the most dynamic industries that have emerged in the twentieth industry. Aside from paving the way for more extensive research and development in aerospace technology, the industry also significantly influences other industries, like logistics, telecommunications, electronics and computing, defense supply, as well as travel and tourism industries. Usually, the aerospace industry of most industrial countries are participated by both publicly and privately-owned companies. In connection with this, several countries have a space program that is entirely controlled by the government. The most prominent of these are the NASA of the United States, Canadian Space Agency in Canada, and the China National Space Administration in China. Moreover, through these space programs, aerospace companies are able to develop technical components and tools, like spaceships and satellites.

So integral is the aerospace industry in the country's economy that in 2004, US Secretary of Labor Elaine L. Chao announced initial investments amounting to $ 3 million. This fund was meant to address the special needs of the aerospace industry workforce. Just two years before, in 2002, the Department of Labor has also invested $ 4 million for the training of incumbent aerospace workers. In an effort to understand and resolve the problem of workforce shortages in the industry, the DOL had sought the recommendation of industry employers and industry association representatives. After all, a robust workforce is a requisite for the efficient functioning of the engines of the aerospace industry. With the eternal need for technological improvement and innovation, it is vital for the industry to motivate all employees from all organizational levels to deliver topnotch performance.

Among all aerospace companies, aerospace manufacturers are probably the most successful. These are the companies that have gained core competency in the production of aerospace products, such as aircraft, guided missiles, propulsion units, aircraft engines, and other similar parts. For these companies, it is vital to maintain a highly efficient global supply chain (GSC). It is expected that through supply chain management and logistics management, GSC for all aerospace firms will dramatically improve.

To achieve a high level of GSC integration, a major chunk of the aerospace industry had adopted Six Sigma processes. With the use of some relevant aerospace KPI and supply chain management success factors, industry players are also able to improve their logistics. With the synergy of all these evaluation tools, aerospace industry players will surely be able to keep up with the ever-changing needs and challenges that they face.

Definition Of Anthropology

Anthropology basically can be defined as the study of humanity. This is a branch of science that deals with almost all aspects of humanity including the culture, language, biological basis and everything. The main concern of anthropology revolves around certain important issues, like who actually the Homo sapiens are, who can be considered as the ancestors of the modern species of human beings, what exactly are their characteristics and the most important aspects of their behavior, and the variations and similarities between different kinds of human.

Anthropology can be categorized into four different sub-fields. Each of these sub-fields is linked with certain specific branches like the physical and biological anthropology, cultural or social anthropology, linguistic and archaeological anthropology. All these fields work on different functions and apply certain specific technologies. Anthropology can otherwise be defined as the scientific study of behavior and origin of human beings that also includes the various social and cultural developments associated with these human beings.

Anthropology has various branches as per the aspects of human beings or their life that are studied under them. For instance, there is linguistic anthropology that deals with the role of language in shaping the social life of any human being. This branch studies all aspects of language that can in any way be associated with the human life. Then, there is cultural anthropology that looks at the various different facets of culture that can affect human life, either positively or negatively, though positive impact is observed in all cases. Some other branches include archaeological anthropology and physical and the biological anthropology.

What Is Car Body Glass Coating?

Glass coating is an inorganic material made of a Silica or a Quartz-Silane-based compound. It is used to protect the painted surfaces of car bodies. It is less likely to stain. Unlike traditional wax, its luster and protection can be long-lasting once it is applied. This is because they do not contain materials that oxidize (bind with oxygen). Oxidation weakens the original protection and shine of many car products, thus rendering the car surface prone to damage. It is easy to maintain, provides clean, shiny surfaces and long-lasting protection.

What is the difference between coating and wax?

The main component of wax is carnauba wax oil, which is extracted from palm trees. In recent years, some waxes have added petroleum. Higher quality waxes contain more carnauba oil. Carnauba wax is oil based, so it has water-repellent characteristics and can obscure scratches. However, there are also disadvantages. Waxes can easily become dirty because oil has a high viscosity (thick and sticky). This means dirt can stick to it. Also, wax can easily melt and deteriorate because it is sensitive to heat. Sunshine or engine heat can promote deterioration and cause wax to melt off the car's surface. Wax can also break down in the rain or when the car is washed.

On the other hand, coating has a chemical composition of silicon, silica, fluorine and titanium. These molecules form a film coating that penetrates between the molecules of the car's painted surface, creating a very powerful protective layer. Resistant to dirt, heat and rain, coating's protection and shine will last over a longer period than wax.

There are various kinds of coatings that range in application complexity from simple, which any consumer can apply, to products for professional use only.

During its application, if the car's surface is dirty and rough, materials will not adhere to car body paint, so surface preparation before application is important.

Types of Glass Coatings

Glass-based coatings can be broadly divided into two categories: quartz-silane based coatings and silica-based coatings.

The quartz-silane-based glass coating, also known as "completely cured glass film type" achieves very high gloss and strong durability. It protects the car body by creating a cured coating of silica on the car's surface. However, it takes about three weeks for the coating to be fully cured, which is a drawback. It is also expensive because it takes a long time for the product to be formulated.

The silica-based glass coating, also known as "glass fiber type", also makes a film, coating the surface of the car body. It is fixed to a silicon polymer molecule. It is an easy formulation and, therefore, is costs less to produce. However, its durability and water repellency is inferior compared to the quartz-silane-based.

In addition, some of the fluorine-based coatings, such as Teflon, are used to coat car bodies. They are excellent in durability. However, they are inferior compared to glass coatings and more expensive to formulate. As a result, glass coatings are on the cutting edge of technology's focus of exploration.

A Glass Coating Hybrid

Currently, there is debate about whether hydrophilic (attracts water) products are more effective than hydrophobic (repels water) products for car care. Glass is hydrophilic. The new types of glass coatings are hybrids, adding a silicone resin layer to the existing glass layer to change the hydrophilic trait of glass to hydrophobic, thus creating a strong water repellant product.

What Drives Information Technology

Information technology generally refers to all forms of technology used in the creation, storage, exchange and utilization of data, conversation and all multi-media forms of communication. With computer technology constantly changing and improving, businesses are being driven with the need for the right system that is based on the requirements and goals of their enterprise. They are considered business allies in an information-based economy.

What drives information technology is competition within the business environment and the progression of computer technology that it is a part of. The systems of technology involve varied shapes of many state of the art devices that help in the transmission of information to managers translating such information to their decisions in the organization's operations.

There are many forms of information technology like computers, sensors, robots and decision support systems. The newest one being used in the market today are handhelds to help managers and subordinates to support their daily operations in the office. Due to the emergence of varied accounting system technology, Electronic Data Process Auditing now also known as Information Technology Auditing was launched to also cater to the need for technology control and as a response to utilize computers' capacity for attestation services.

Information technology has revolutionized business operations. In shaping the structure and functions of work organizations, plants, and office, modern information technology is considered one of prime movers among many industries. When one talks about technology, it brings up a whole exciting world of computers and the Internet. It also prompts terms like server, intranet, security, firewall and network. Other terms in its jargon are Ethernet, VoIP and more.

Information technology has not always alluded to computers, but referred to the oldest information processor, which is the brain. Technology is perhaps man's scientific attempt to imitate the brain's efficiency in functions of communication and information storage. Thus it is essentially the communication, storage and processing of information that would suit the purposes of users.

Through the use of high technology in the form of state of the art computers and software systems, communication is well managed. Some companies refer to its Information Technology Department as MIS or Management Information Services. Large companies have bigger requirements for the Information technology departments with bigger responsibilities in information storage, information protection, information processing, information transmission, and even information retrieval. IT contributes to the success of these businesses as it works along side its human resources in accomplishing the organization's tasks while reducing costs and opening new possibilities that have never been tried before by the company.

When the best of both science and technology is combined, what results is as powerful as today's advancements in technology. So powerful it is that it is not only a part of man's life – it dominates it. It makes him realize every second of his existence

Types of Ergonomics and Causes of Eye Strain

Ergonomics is a scientific word which says that a worker should feel comfortable with other workers and their environment. Designing proper ergonomics will prevent from strain injuries, or else it will lead to long term disability. It must be designed in such a way that people and their technological tools and environment suit each other.

It is broadly divided in to three domains

Physical ergonomics
It is related with human anatomical, and anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics which relates to physical activity.

Cognitive ergonomics
It is concerned with mental process, memory, reasoning which affects human interactions. Work stress and training also come under this kind of ergonomics.

Organizational ergonomics
Structure of an organization is also considered under ergonomics. Work design, virtual organization, etc are some of the related topics of ergonomics.

Causes of eye strain
Straining one or more eye muscles causes eye strain. Ciliary's body is the eye muscle responsible for accommodation, by straining this muscle is the cause for eye strain. Strain is caused due to keeping the muscle in one position for a long time.

Common causes are

  • Computer use
  • Watching television
  • Reading

Eye strain can rob you of your happiness. Symptoms of this are wide and far reaching. Steps to take treatment for eye strain are as follows

  1. Monitor your symptoms
  2. Identify the causes
  3. Tests
  4. Medical diagnosis

Prevention is better than cure. Best way to treat the strain is prevent it in the first place. If the cause of strain is known then it is easy to prevent it.

Thus choose best ways to prevent ergonomics by having computers in the office which does not affect workers eyes. They should be given time for relaxing themselves. Work load should be reduced.

Subtle Bodies And Dark Matter

Long before physicists stumbled onto invisible ‘dark matter and energy’, metaphysicists had been experimenting and observing them using the sensory systems of their higher energy bodies. They generally called it ‘subtle matter and energy’ but it went by different names in different places; the most popular being ‘qi’, ‘prana’ and ‘kundalini’. ‘Qi’ is a general term for ‘energy’ in Mandarin; ‘Prana’ and ‘kundalini’ are terms that have similar meanings in Hindu metaphysics. This invisible energy has not only been observed by those in the East, it has also been studied in the West. In the West the term ‘L’ energy is sometimes used. This ‘L’ energy or ‘life energy’ has the same general meaning as qi and prana. Science has been unable to measure qi, prana, kundalini or L-energy directly – just as it finds it difficult to measure dark matter or energy directly.

Is dark matter the same as subtle matter?

Obviously both dark matter and subtle matter are invisible to most of us who use the sensory systems of our physical-biomolecular body almost exclusively during this lifetime. However, convince yourself that they are the same by comparing a sample of properties of dark matter with subtle matter, below. (The list is not exhaustive. More and more correlations are cropping-up as we study the subject in greater detail.)

1. There is Mutual Affinity between Dark / Subtle and Ordinary Matter

According to science reporter Robert Britt, studies show that on large cosmic scales dark matter and ordinary matter in galaxies trace out the same shapes and structures. “They become sculpted into nearly identical sheets and filaments, with vast expanses of near-nothingness in between.” According to metaphysicist Charles Leadbeater there is an affinity between “astral” matter (a form of subtle matter) and physical matter He says that astral matter is attracted to physical matter and moulds into its shape as the physical-biomolecular body grows. Astral matter follows its every change, 99% of which is compressed within the periphery of the physical-biomolecular body. Conversely, there are also observations which confirm that ordinary matter falls under dark matter’s influence. There is, in fact, a mutual affinity between dark / subtle matter and ordinary matter.

2. Dark / Subtle Matter provides the Invisible Scaffolding, Mould or Template for Ordinary Matter

Physicist Chung Pei-Ma, an associate professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley, concludes that “the ghost universe of dark matter is a template for the visible universe”. According to Richard Massey, a dark matter researcher at the California Institute of Technology, dark matter condensed first. The gravity of dark matter then pulled ordinary matter into it. “The normal matter flows gravitationally into this sort of dark matter scaffolding,” Massey says “and is constructed within that into the galaxy and the stars we see today.” According to scientists, dark matter and its gravity shaped bright matter in a manner similar to how the texture of the ground shapes puddles of rainwater. This basically means dark matter acts as a mould for ordinary matter to accumulate and be shaped. Dark matter has been regarded by scientists as something that gives structure to ordinary matter. This means it allows ordinary matter to maintain its form.

Barbara Brennan, former NASA engineer and now world-renowned energy healer, says that the “human energy field” has an organizing effect on matter and builds forms; any changes in the material world are preceded by a change in this field. Metaphysicists, such as Brennan, have been insisting for years that these invisible fields form the templates for the formation of the biomolecular body. Metaphysicist Leonard Ravitz says that the invisible electric fields serve as an electronic matrix to keep the corporeal form in shape. In other words they provide the structure to our physical-biomolecular body to maintain its form.

Brennan observes through her “higher sense perception” that an “energy field matrix” in the shape of a leaf is projected by a plant prior to the growth of a leaf, and then the leaf grows into that already existing form. In other words, the energy field acts as a mould for the growth of the visible leaf. In Raymond Burr’s experiments with plant seedlings, he discovered electrical fields which resembled the eventual adult plant. He also discovered that salamanders possessed an energy field shaped like an adult salamander, and that this blueprint even existed in an unfertilized egg. Young salamanders were surrounded by an electrical field of the same size as an adult salamander. He also found that electrical fields surrounding sprouts did not correspond to the form of the seeds but to the form of the grown plant. According to Leadbeater, the (invisible) “etheric double” is actually built in advance of the human fetus. “Clairvoyants sometimes see this doll-like little figure hovering about, and afterwards within the body of the mother”, he says.

3. Dark / Subtle Matter generates Superficial Forms

Physicists Chung-Pei Ma and Edmund Bertschinger of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) say, based on computer models of how dark matter would move under the force of gravity, that dark matter should form smaller clumps that look superficially like the galaxies and globular clusters we see in our luminous (ordinarily visible) universe.

Metaphysicists, such as Leadbeater, say that the etheric and astral bodies look superficially like the biomolecular body but they operate differently, being based on electromagnetic rather than largely biochemical processes as in the biomolecular body.

4. Dark / Subtle Matter Astronomical Objects Outnumber Ordinary Objects

Ma and Bertschinger of MIT say that computer simulations of the evolution of dark matter predict far more clumps of dark matter than ordinarily visible luminous matter in a specified region. According to Ma, “Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has about a dozen satellites, but in simulations we see thousands of satellites of dark matter.”

Mystic Paramahansa Yogananda said in 1946 that “just as many physical suns and stars roam in space, so there are also countless astral suns and moons.” In 1957 metaphysicist Norman Pearson noted that so far (in Science) we have only considered physical planets; but there are also planets composed of ‘super-physical’ matter. In fact, he says, “The super-physical planets form the greater part of the planetary population of the Solar System.”

5. Dark / Subtle Matter Particles Can Pass through You

Compare the description of dark matter particles, called WIMPs, by a physicist with the globules of L-energy, described by metaphysicist Paul Pearsall:

“If there are as many WIMPs [ ie dark matter particles] as would be required to explain the motions of galaxies, large numbers are whizzing through the room you are sitting in, and through your own body, without you noticing” – John Gribbin, Physicist.

“It [ie globules of subtle L -energy] passes unchanged through any known substance and nothing shields or deflects it” – Paul Pearsall, Metaphysicist

“We do not know what the remaining 90% of matter is, but this ‘dark matter’ differs from ordinary matter in being able to pass right through both ordinary matter and other dark matter, just like ghosts are supposed to pass through stone walls . “ – Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Oxford

Ron Cowen says, “Evidence indicates that when speeding fragments of dark matter meet, they do not collide as other matter do but pass right through each other, ghostlike.” Observations by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory suggest that if dark matter particles do collide, they do so relatively weakly. In other words, they will not be appreciably affected on collision.

Leadbeater noted (almost a century ago) that subtle astral bodies can and do constantly interpenetrate one another fully, without in the least injuring one another. “People on the astral plane,” according to him, “can and do pass through one another constantly, and through fixed astral objects.” When passing through another subtle astral body for a short time, the two astral bodies are not appreciably affected. However, if the interpenetration lasts for some time, Leadbeater says that they do affect one another “as far as the rates of vibration [ie frequencies] are concerned.”

This is not surprising, as (according to plasma metaphysics) subtle bodies are electromagnetic bodies. Hence, when two subtle bodies pass through each other slowly there would be electromagnetic effects – such as changes in frequencies and distribution of charges over the subtle body. David Spergel of Princeton University, commenting on the findings by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, is of the view that “the findings do not rule out interactions, other than gravitational effects, among dark matter particles.” Hence bodies composed of dark matter particles can interact with one another electromagnetically. The ability of subtle bodies to pass through other subtle bodies and objects betrays the fact that they are composed of low-density dark matter.

6. Dark / Subtle Matter is of Low Density

According to scientists, the average dark matter density in the Solar System is much lower (a trillion trillion times lower) than that of rocks, water and other substances typically found on Earth.

Out-of-body researcher, Robert Monroe, observes that the ‘Second Body’ can penetrate walls and concludes that, “Anything that can interpenetrate a wall must have very little density.” Metaphysicist Leadbeater observed (around 1910) that astral matter is only relatively solid. Almost a century ago he said, “The particles in the densest astral matter are further apart, relative to their size, than even gaseous particles. Hence, it is easier for two of the densest astral bodies to pass through each other than it would be for the lightest gas to diffuse itself in the air. ” In other words, astral bodies are composed of “collisionless” dark matter.

7. Dark / Subtle Matter rapidly increases in Density towards the Center

A study using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides the most direct evidence yet that galaxies reside at the centre of giant, dark matter concentrations that may be 50 times larger than the visible galaxy itself! The ‘lambda cold dark matter’ model is a popular scientific model that predicts that dark matter rapidly increases in density towards the centre of a galaxy. Astrophysicists modeling the motion of dark matter say that each clump had a density that peaked in the centre and fell-off toward the edges in the exact same way, independent of its size. Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory support the cold dark matter model. To test the model, researchers used Chandra’s sharp optics to measure the temperature and intensity of the hot, X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster some 4 billion light-years from Earth. The data obtained by John S Arabadjis and Mark W Bautz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, along with Gordon P Garmire of Pennsylvania State University in State College, found that the density is greater the closer it is to the centre of the cluster.

Leadbeater reported in 1910 that the densest aggregation of subtle astral matter is within the periphery of the physical body of a man. Similarly, he said, in the case of the Earth, the greater part of its astral matter is gathered together within the limits of its ordinarily visible physical sphere. The density profile of subtle astral matter is consistent with the density profile of dark matter observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

8. Dark / Subtle Matter is “Weakly Interacting”

Physicists say dark matter ‘interacts weakly’ with ordinarily visible matter. They could well have said that there are ‘subtle interactions’ between dark and ordinarily visible matter. The term ‘subtle’ used by metaphysicists is not much different in meaning from ‘weakly interacting’ used by physicists to describe the nature of interactions between ordinary and dark matter.

9. Dark / Subtle Matter is Composed of High Energy Particles

Dark matter particles include supersymmetric objects and particles. According to scientists, these are higher mass-higher energy particles that have not been detected by our current low energy particle accelerators because of their high energies.

Subtle matter (in traditional metaphysical theories) is considered to be made up of highly energetic particles which generally becomes visible (as objects) after some training in meditation or similar exercises. In Hindu metaphysics, we find references to not only the “anu” (ie standard physical particles) but “param-anu” (which are super-physical particles). Valerie Hunt, Professor Emeritus at UCLA and internationally recognized authority in the area of ​​energy field medicine, says that “even ancient Hindu literature asserts that the energy body possesses a higher vibration [or frequency] than normal matter-energy.” Modern ‘seers’ were unanimous in their opinion that subtle bodies consist of “as yet undiscovered higher frequency matter and energy” and have mass – long before any widespread awareness of dark matter or supersymmetry theories.

10. Dark / Subtle Matter forms Webs

According to Britt, scientific studies show that both ordinary and dark matter work in concert to build a web of filaments in space, with dense junctions where galaxies cluster together. The resulting structures, he says, look something like spider webs.

In 1904 metaphysicist Annie Besant reported that, “During human antenatal life a single thread weaves a network, a shimmering web of inconceivable fineness and delicate beauty, with minute meshes. Within the meshes of this web the coarser particles of the bodies are built together. ” The Chinese acupuncture map of meridians in the physical-etheric body also resembles a web of energy. According to Brennan, the physical-etheric body is “like a sparkling web of light beams”. To a clairvoyant, “the etheric body consists of a definite structure of lines of force and sparks of bluish white light move along these lines” she says. This web has been discussed in more detail in the author’s article Acupuncture Meridians and the Cosmic Spider Web.

11. Dark / Subtle Matter is Subject to Gravity

“Thanks to a new analysis by physicists at Caltech and the University of Toronto, we can expect that lumps of dark matter gravitationally attract each other in just the same way that lumps of normal matter (like you and the Earth, for instance) attract each other. ” – Science Daily, October 2006

“Astral matter [ie dark matter] gravitates towards the center of the Earth, just as physical matter does.” – Charles Leadbeater, Metaphysicist, 1910

According to Brennan ‘aura’ appears to have weight. Monroe believes that the ‘Second Body’ has weight and is subject to the gravitational force. (Weight is, of course, an effect of the gravitational force.) It appears that what was discovered by Science in 2006 was observed by Leadbeater almost a century ago and also by many other experimental metaphysicists.

What Check Printing Software Is Best for Printing Checks?

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